Britannica.com: Encyclopedia of Globalization article Paul James defines globalization with a more direct and historically contextualized goal: Lagarde argues that we should pursue a globalization policy that expands the benefits of openness and inclusion while mitigating its side effects. How to make globalization fairer is a very complex issue that involves the overhaul of economic systems. But how? That is the question. One criticism of globalization is that the natural resources of the poor have been systematically taken over by the rich, and the pollution proclaimed by the rich is systematically poured on the poor.  Some argue that northern companies are increasingly exploiting the resources of less prosperous countries for their global activities, while it is the South that disproportionately bears the environmental burden of the globalized economy. Globalization thus leads to a kind of “environmental apartheid”.  Another example of globalization is the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Because the world was able to communicate across borders, nations could work together to quickly produce vaccines against the virus. In addition, the doctors went where they were needed. For example, at the beginning of the pandemic, Cuba sent doctors to Italy to help deal with the crisis that developed there. G20 leaders gather for an annual summit to discuss and coordinate pressing global issues of mutual interest.
Although the economy and trade are usually at the heart of the agenda of each summit, issues such as climate change, migration policy, terrorism, the future of work or global prosperity are also recurring priorities. While G20 leaders are “the political backbone of the global financial architecture that ensures open markets, orderly capital flows and provide a safety net for troubled countries,” it is often through bilateral summits that important international agreements can be reached and globalization can move forward. The term globalization as it is used today became known in the 1980s and reflected several technological advances that increased international interactions. Ibm`s introduction of the personal computer in 1981 and the subsequent development of the modern Internet are two examples of technologies that have helped boost international communication, trade and globalization. The “early modern period” or “proto-globalization” includes a period in the history of globalization that extends approximately over the years between 1600 and 1800. The concept of “proto-globalization” was first introduced by historians A. G. Hopkins and Christopher Bayly. The term describes the period of increased trade relations and cultural exchanges that marked the period immediately before the advent of high “modern globalization” at the end of the 19th century.  This period of globalization was marked by the rise of European maritime empires in the 15th and 17th centuries, first the Portuguese Empire (1415), followed by the Spanish Empire (1492) and later the Dutch and British empires. Im 17.
In the nineteenth century, world trade continued to develop when chartered companies such as the British East India Company (founded in 1600) and the Dutch East India Company (founded in 1602, often referred to as the first multinational company in which shares were offered) were founded.  Environmental Cooperation – One of the greatest achievements of environmental cooperation has been the agreement to reduce chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions, as set out in the Montreal Protocol, in order to halt ozone depletion. The recent debate on nuclear power and non-alternative coal-fired power plants represents another consensus on what not to do. Third, significant successes in IC can be observed through development studies.  Knowledge was easily shared, and international cooperation among the brightest minds accelerated things. According to some analysts, globalization has also helped to improve global economic conditions and create a lot of economic prosperity (but it was unevenly distributed – more information to come). “Globalization. Merriam-Webster.com dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/globalization.
Retrieved 14 January 2022. Economic cooperation – One of the biggest challenges of globalization in 2019 is that many believe that the progress made in recent decades is now on the right track. The tracing of globalization coined the term “slobalisation”. Slobalisation is a new, slower model of globalization.  Helena Norberg-Hodge, director and founder of the Local Futures/International Society for Ecology and Culture, criticizes globalization in several ways. In his book Ancient Futures, Norberg-Hodge argues that “centuries of ecological balance and social harmony are threatened by the pressures of development and globalization.” It also criticizes the normalization and rationalization of globalization, as it does not always produce the expected growth results. Although globalization takes similar steps in most countries, scientists like Hodge argue that it may not be effective for some countries and that globalization has actually set back some countries rather than expand them.  A number of international surveys have shown that people in Africa and Asia tend to view globalization more positively than people in Europe or North America. In Africa, a Gallup poll found that 70% of the population sees globalization positively.  The BBC found that 50% of people felt that economic globalisation was progressing too fast, while 35% thought it was progressing too slowly.  Music plays an important role in economic and cultural development during globalization. Musical genres such as jazz and reggae began locally and later became international phenomena.
Globalization has fostered the phenomenon of world music by allowing music from developing countries to reach a wider audience.  Although the term “world music” was originally intended for specific ethnic music, globalization is now expanding its scope to include often hybrid subgenres such as “global fusion,” “global fusion,” “ethnic fusion,” and worldbeat.   International standards have made trade in goods and services more efficient. An example of such a standard is the intermodal container. Containerization has significantly reduced transportation costs, supported the post-war boom in international trade, and been an important part of globalization.  International standards are established by the International Organization for Standardization, which is composed of representatives of various national standards bodies. Canadian philosopher Marshall McLuhan popularized the term Global Village beginning in 1962.  His view suggested that globalization would lead to a world in which people in all countries would become more integrated and aware of common interests and common humanity.  The joint action of G20 leaders undoubtedly served to save the global financial system during the 2008-2009 crisis, through the removal of trade barriers and the implementation of major financial reforms. Nevertheless, the G20 has struggled to successfully coordinate monetary and fiscal policies and has not been able to eradicate tax evasion and corruption, as well as other disadvantages of globalization. In the wake of this and other failures of the G20 to coordinate globalization, popular nationalist movements around the world have defended countries that should pursue their interests alone or form successful coalitions. A related contemporary ideology, consumerism, which promotes the personal acquisition of goods and services, is also the engine of globalization.
 Anti-consumerism is a social movement against the assimilation of personal happiness to the consumption and purchase of material goods. Concerns about the treatment of consumers by large corporations have led to significant activism and the integration of consumer education into school curricula. Social activists believe that materialism is linked to the global trade movement and supplier convergence, war, greed, anomie, crime, environmental degradation, general social malaise and dissatisfaction. A variant of this theme is post-consumer activism, with a strategic focus on overcoming addictive consumerism.  James and Steger explained that the concept of globalization “arose from the intersection of four interconnected groups of `communities of practice` (Wenger, 1998): academics, journalists, publishers/publishers, and librarians.” : 424 They note that the term “has been used in education to describe the overall life of the mind”; in international relations, to describe the expansion of the European common market, and in journalism, to describe how the American Negro and his problem acquire global significance.”  You have also argued that one can distinguish four forms of globalization that complement and cut through purely empirical dimensions.   According to James, the oldest dominant form of globalization is embodied globalization, the movement of people. A second form is the globalization reinforced by the agency, the circulation of agents of various institutions, organizations and communities, including imperial agents. Globalization extended to the object, a third form, is the movement of commodities and other objects of exchange. He describes the transfer of ideas, images, knowledge and information in the space of disembodied globalization and argues that it is currently the dominant form of globalization. James believes that this set of distinctions helps to understand how today the most embodied forms of globalization, such as the movement of refugees and migrants, are increasingly limited, while the most disembodied forms, such as the circulation of financial instruments and codes, are the most deregulated.  Although the effects of globalization can be observed, the analysis of the net impact is more complex […].